Music Theory 101
Authored by Paul Schmeling
Course Code: OHARM-101
If you want to learn music theory, then pitch, rhythm, scales, intervals, chords, and harmony are foundational concepts that you need to understand and master. Music Theory 101 will set you on your way with 12 weeks of engaging and interactive music theory lessons. After more than 40 years at Berklee, Professor Emeritus Paul Schmeling has helped countless students learn music theory and build a solid base of musical knowledge. And he'll do the same for you with his online music theory course, supported by class discussions, interactive tools, and personalized feedback that will help you put music theory into practice every day. Join our community of beginning learners for a hands-on music theory course where you'll read, write, and truly hear the elements of music like never before.
Lesson 1: Rhythm Part I
- Rhythmic Notation Activities
Lesson 2: Rhythm Part II
- Eighth Notes
- Beaming, Dots, and Ties
- Rhythmic Notation Tips
- Rhythmic Dictation Activity
- Rhythmic Notation Activity
Lesson 3: Pitch Notation
- ABCs of Pitch Notation
- Treble Clef Notes
- Bass Clef Notes
- Grand Staff
- Accidentals: Sharps, Flats, and Naturals
Lesson 4: Major Scales
- Half Steps and Whole Steps
- Chromatic Scales
- Whole Tone Scales
- Major Scales
- Other Major Scales
- Key Signatures
- Scales and Key Signatures
Lesson 5: Minor Scales
- The Minor Scale Sound
- The Relative Major/Minor Relationship
- Parallel Minor
- Harmonic Minor
- Melodic Minor
- The Descending Melodic Minor Scale
- The Real Melodic Minor Scale
- Minor Scale Key Signatures
Lesson 6: Intervals
- Interval Number Names
- Interval Sound
- Perfect and Major Intervals
- Major vs. Minor Intervals
- Perfect/Major vs. Diminished
- Perfect/Major vs. Augmented
- Compound Intervals
Lesson 7: Chords I: Triads
- Major Triads
- Minor Triads
- Diminished and Augmented Triads
- Chord Symbols
Lesson 8: Triad Inversions
- Triad Inversions
- Bass/Chord Theory
- Voice Leading
- Parallel and Contrary Motion
Lesson 9: Chords II: Basic Seventh Chords
- The Major Seventh Chord
- The Dominant Seventh Chord
- The Minor Seventh Chord
- The Minor 7
- The Diminished Seventh Chord
- Chord Symbols and Review
Lesson 10: Inversions and Voice Leading of Seventh Chords
- Inversions of Basic Seventh Chords
- Positions of Basic Seventh Chords
- Voice Leading Seventh Chords
- Voice Leading: Two Ways
Lesson 11: Using the Lead Sheet
- Harmonizing the Melody
- Creating Harmonic Accompaniments
- Voice Doublings
- Increasing Activity in the Bass
Lesson 12: Melody Writing
- Making Melodic Connections
- Repeating Phrases
Prerequisites and Course-Specific Requirements
Prerequisite Courses, Knowledge, and/or Skills
Take the Music Theory self-assessment quiz to determine your level.
- Recommended: Berklee Music Theory: Book 1 by Paul Schmeling (Berklee Press, 2011)
- Recommended: Berklee Music Theory: Book 2 by Paul Schmeling (Berklee Press, 2011)
- MuseScore (free) or Finale
General Course Requirements
Below are the minimum requirements to access the course environment and participate in Live Chats. Please make sure to also check the Prerequisites and Course-Specific Requirements section above, and ensure your computer meets or exceeds the minimum system requirements for all software needed for your course.
- Latest version of Google Chrome
- Zoom meeting software
- Speakers or headphones
- External or internal microphone
- Broadband Internet connection
Author & Instructor
Paul Schmeling is a master pianist, interpreter, improviser and arranger who has inspired countless students since he began teaching at Berklee in 1961. He has performed or recorded with jazz greats such as Clark Terry, Rebecca Parris, George Coleman, Carol Sloane, Frank Foster, Art Farmer, Herb Pomeroy, Phil Wilson, Dick Johnson and Slide Hampton. In the 1990s, the Paul Schmeling Trio released two inventive and critically acclaimed albums, interpreting the music of Hoagy Carmichael and songs associated with Frank Sinatra. Recently retired as chair of the piano department, he is co-author of the Berklee Practice Method: Keyboard (2001) and Instant Keyboard (2002) and the author of Berklee Music Theory: Book 1.
Carlos “Charly” Arana is a guitarist, producer, and researcher. His specialties range from Latin American rhythms to the application of machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques for music. As a guitarist, arranger, and musical director he has worked and recorded with artists from all over the world, including legendary Bossa Nova singer Maria Creuza, whose band he was a member of. He has edited a number of books for Hal Leonard and Warner Bros. Publications (Alfred Publications), and for his studies and research on machine learning and AI he has been invited as a speaker in congresses and seminars at some of the most prestigious technology universities, such as MIT and UC Berkeley.
Russell Hoffmann is Assistant Professor of Piano at Berklee College of Music and is a pianist, recording artist, composer and arranger in many styles of contemporary music, including jazz, Latin, and pop styles. He has served as musical director for Concord recording artist Marlena Shaw and the University of Minnesota's "Twelve Moods for Jazz" Langston Hughes project. He has performed with many jazz luminaries, including Jack McDuff, James Moody, Billy Hart, Donald Harrison, Bobbie McFerrin, Peter Lietch, and many of Boston's finest jazz artists. As a clinician, Russ has appeared in Berklee's Italy summer program, Umbria Jazz Festival, Perugia, Italy; Berklee in Taipei; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Heineken Jazz Fest, San Juan, Puerto Rico; and the Berklee Annual Jazz Festival. He is the author of workbooks on keyboard comping, ensemble performance, and co-author of the Berklee Practice Method: Keyboard.
Dave Limina is the Chair of the Piano department at Berklee College of Music. He is also the Director of the Bachelor of Arts in Piano Performance degree program for Berklee Online. In 2001 he received the Most Valuable Contribution to the Performance Curriculum Award for his work in developing the Hammond organ program. An experienced session keyboardist, composer, and arranger, Dave has performed with Ronnie Earl and the Broadcasters, Lori McKenna, Duke Robillard, Gloria Estefan, Mark Murphy, Scott Hamilton, the first national touring company of the Broadway musical Rent, and many others. He received Boston Music Award nominations for his work with Courage Brothers, Ronnie Earl, and Mighty Sam McClain, and has played on several Grammy-nominated recordings. He played keyboards on Michelle Willson's Wake Up Call, which won a Boston Music Award in 2001. Dave does extensive session work in Boston, New York, and LA. He is the author of Hammond Organ Complete (Berklee Press) and the instructional video/DVD Accelerate Your Keyboard Playing. His playing is featured on many TV and film soundtracks.
Gaye Tolan Hatfield is a graduate of Berklee College of Music and a professor in the college’s Ear Training department. She has also taught in the Harmony, Voice, and Ensemble departments, and co-wrote and teaches the Berklee Online course Music Foundations. Her work outside of the college includes writing, arranging, transcribing, and performing locally as a vocalist, pianist, and flutist. She has assisted orchestrators for the Boston Pops, and in the summer of 2013, wrote a choral arrangement that was performed at the Pops 4th of July concert.
Hatfield's compositions can be heard on a variety of television shows, including Navy NCIS, History Detective, The Young and the Restless, Revenge, NUMBER3, C.S.I. NY, Good Wife, and United States of Tara, in addition to the films Dear John and What To Expect When You're Expecting. She has also been a member of the Providence Singers, and penned an arrangement of "Someone to Watch Over Me" for their 2007-2008 Gershwin tribute concert.
Gaye earned 2015 and 2016 Daytime Emmy award nominations for her work as a member of the composing team for The Young and the Restless. Read Less
Mike Hamilton has been producing, writing, recording, and performing music for over twenty years. He was a member of the late night band for the BET television show Live from LA, where he wrote and produced hip-hop pieces for guest artists such as Dr. Dre, Snoop Dog, Warren G, Method Man, P. Diddy, and Mystical. He has produced recordings for Interscope, Island Def Jam, and BGP Records. His recordings include Heart and Soul with the Winans, Thus Spoke Z with CTI, and the solo albums Natural Attraction and Here Together. While the saxophone is his principal instrument, he also plays keyboards, bass, and drums.
Hamilton has appeared and toured with multi-platinum recording artists such as James Brown, Tyrese, Savage Garden, Coolio, Joe, Ronny Jordan, Jonathan Butler, and Phil Perry. He has performed at the BBC London, the NFL World Bowl IX Halftime Show, the Turn Ben Stein On TV show, and the Today show. He has been featured at the Boston Globe Jazz Festival and the Santa Barbara Jazz Festival. He received his bachelor of music degree from Berklee College of Music, where he is now an assistant professor in the Contemporary Writing and Production department. Read Less
Pianist and composer Vicente Avella has been writing and performing internationally since 1998. Born and raised in Caracas, Venezuela, he has scored numerous independent films, orchestrated and worked on music production for major network television shows including Family Guy (FOX) and American Dad (FOX), and written music for worldwide advertising including Intel (Saudi Arabia), Red Bull Air Race World Championship (Brazil), and official branding for FPC Sports Channel (Colombia). Avella also performs regularly as a piano soloist, accompanist, and in chamber groups.
In 2013, Avella released his debut album, All the Days of My Life, produced by Grammy Award winner Will Ackerman, founder of Windham Hill Records. The record received multiple awards including Best Solo Piano Album from One World Music Awards and an Award of Excellence for Instrumental Performance Solo from Global Music Awards. The single "Bridal March" charted at no. 1 on iTunes; it is also the no. 1 "Bridal March" on YouTube.
In addition to teaching at Berklee, Avella is an adjunct professor at Antelope Valley College in Lancaster, California, where he teaches music theory, musicianship, and piano performance. He is the recipient of a fellowship from Eastman School of Music, where he completed his master's degree in music composition; he received his bachelor's degree in piano performance from Indiana University. Avella currently resides with his wife and children in Los Angeles. Read Less
Dr. Melissa Howe is a violinist whose interdisciplinary training in music theory, cognitive psychology, and education has served as the foundation for a multi-faceted career in the arts. Howe served on Berklee’s Boston campus as faculty for many years in the Composition, Ear Training, and String Departments. Her performances span a wide range, from food opera to video game string quartet to Björk, Harry Belafonte, and Bruce Springsteen, as well the superlative orchestras of Boston’s leading arts organizations. Currently serving as Chief of Staff in the Office of the President, Dr. Howe works tirelessly to support innovation and excellence at Berklee.
Bill Brinkley is the developer and former director of the Center for Computer Aided Instruction in Music, Berklee’s first research facility investigating the use of computer technology in a music curriculum. A Berklee graduate with a degree in composition, Bill joined the faculty in 1976. During his 15 years at the college, Bill was also a highly respected professor, teaching ear training, solfege, arranging, harmony, jazz counterpoint, ensembles, and private guitar lessons, and authoring two jazz counterpoint courses and a music copying course. Bill started out as a rock and R and B guitarist in his native Georgia, eventually joining Motown to work with David Ruffin after the singer left the Temptations. He became one of Boston’s most proficient jazz guitarists, playing in numerous bands with top area musicians like Jerry Bergonzi, Grover Mooney, and Garrison Fewell. An in-demand music copyist and transcriber, Bill has worked for Harry Connick Jr., the Boston Pops, George Benson, Lyle Mays, and classical composer Thomas Oboe Lee. He continues to work as a musician, as well as a graphic designer and music technology consultant.
Ayeisha Dennise Mathis is a Boston native born into a musical family who exposed her to various instruments such as keys and guitar. At the tender age of 5 she fell in love with drums and percussion. Throughout her youth, her musical talents were nurtured and matured through playing at church. She quickly rose to become Boston’s sought after drummer showing extraordinary talent and a promising future in music. Before the age of 18, Mathis shared the worldwide stage with renowned artists and musicians such as Sheila E., Hugh Masekela, John Blackwell, Dennis Chambers, Vinnie Colaiuta, Dawaun Parker, and many others. She is the first recipient of the prestigious Berklee College of Music presidential scholarship, graduating in 2009 with dual degrees in Music Production and Engineering and Music Business/Management. Mathis has made the Berklee community proud, affectionately recognized as one of Berklee’s notable alumni, she lives up to that recognition.
Mathis is making a lasting impact on her local community. She is the Founder and CEO of Sound Doctrine Company, whose core business function is to support up and coming artists through music production, artist development, and education. She volunteers her time and talents for local clinics and masters classes for the City of Boston, Berklee College of Music, and many other community centers and music programs. In addition, she mentors numerous youth in and around the Boston area. She is the former music program director at the Boys and Girls Clubs of Dorchester and former team leader for the Music and Youth Initiative. Currently, she is an Assistant Professor at Berklee College of Music and a faculty member at the New England Conservatory. Additionally she is serving her community as the Program Director at the Boston Kroc Center. Read Less
Debbie Cavalier was the co-founder of Berklee Online in 2002, and has been instrumental in transforming the online school of Berklee College of Music into a worldwide music education powerhouse. Under Debbie's leadership, Berklee Online has achieved many landmark firsts in the world of online education: in 2013 it became the first online music school to offer MOOCs; in 2014 it became the first online music school to offer bachelor's degrees; in 2017 it became the first school to offer an online bachelor's degree in guitar; and in 2018 it became the first online music school to offer online master's degree programs in music production and film scoring. Berklee Online boasts a 97 percent student satisfaction rate among its degree students, a benchmark that Debbie and her team have increased each year. Her dedication to music education is also reflected in the 100+ music education methods books and arrangements she has written for Carl Fischer, First Act, Alfred Publishing, and Warner Bros. Publications.
She holds a Master's degree in Education from Cambridge College and continues to further her studies in music, business, and distance learning. Debbie also leads the children's/family music group Debbie & Friends, and is a Grammy award-winning songwriter with her song entitled "Walk Away" which was featured on the 2011 Best Children's album, All About Bullies. Known for their original cartoon music videos, Debbie & Friends has more than 18 million views on their YouTube channel, and growing.
Debbie is a Director on AVID's ACA Executive Board and recently served on the UPCEA Board of Governors and the Boston Higher Education Innovation Council. She has been honored with the She Rocks "Inspire Award" and Boston's "50 on Fire Award" for Education. In her spare time, Debbie is a volunteer musician with the "Musicians On Call" organization, singing Debbie & Friends songs bedside to brave young patients at Boston's "Floating Hospital for Children" at Tufts Medical Center. To help out during the COVID-19 crisis, Debbie performs weekly online sing-alongs for children via YouTube LIVE. Read Less
Gail McArthur-Browne is an assistant professor in the Contemporary Writing and Production department at Berklee College of Music. She is a saxophonist, composer, and arranger originally from Glasgow, Scotland. She has performed with many great musicians, including Benny Carter, Gerry Mulligan, Grover Washington, Don Cherry, Jackie McLean, Antonio Sanchez, Christian McBride, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Maria Schneider, The Scottish National Jazz Orchestra, Vital Information, Dave Weckl, and Horacio "El Negro" Hernandez.
McArthur-Browne has won many awards, including The Princes Trust Award, STUC James Milne Award, Scottish International Education Award, The Cross Trust Award, Mary Patton Rowan Award, and the Cosmopolitan Magazine and American Express Performing Arts Award. She has made several television appearances, including U.K. Channel 4 Television, "Down the Line," CNN's Berklee Special, WBZ4 News, and CN8 "Nitebeat." In 1999 and 2000, she was commissioned by the Scottish Arts Council and composed pieces for the Scottish National Jazz Orchestra. Read Less
Internationally touring musician, Mark Zaleski, has distinguished himself as a uniquely dynamic soloist, multi-instrumentalist, and band leader.He has performed with a diverse group of notable artists including Dave Brubeck, Christian McBride, Ian Anderson, Connie Francis, Mahmoud Ahmed, Rakalam Bob Moses, the Either/Orchestra, Jason Palmer, and Matt Savage. At the young age of 33, he has established faculty positions at Berklee College of Music, New England Conservatory of Music, and Longy School of Music at Bard College.
In 2017, Zaleski released his second record, “Days, Months, Years”, a record where Zaleski performs on alto saxophone, soprano saxophone, and double bass; one of the first of its kind in the jazz genre.
Additionally, Zaleski is active in many musical projects including the Omar Thomas Large Ensemble, The Brighton Beat, the Either/Orchestra, Nyota Road, a duo project with Glenn Zaleski, Chris Hersch and the Moonraiders, The Ayn Inserto Jazz Orchestra, Mehmet Sanlikol and WhatsNext, and plays bass in a popular Boston-area soul band he founded called Planet Radio. Read Less
When taken for credit, Music Theory 101 can be applied towards these associated programs: