Authored by Andy Edelstein
Course Code: OMPRD-355
Whether your studio work features a single vocalist or rapper, metal trio, or large big-band jazz ensemble, the ability to implement effective microphone techniques is essential to producing dynamic music. Microphone Techniques is designed to give you the solid background and skill set necessary for successfully planning and implementing recording sessions ranging from single-mic overdubs to full rhythm sections. Throughout the course, you'll learn about the various elements of the recording chain, detailed technical characteristics of different microphone types, selecting appropriate microphone models based upon an instrument's sound and the desired outcome, proper handling and setup, close and distant microphone placements for a wide variety of musical instruments, strategies for utilizing the recording environment, and managing the demands of complex recording sessions with multiple participants.
Each week, you'll complete exercises and assignments that help build your skills step-by-step. You'll get better acquainted with the microphones available to you, experiment with both close and distant mic techniques, and work your way up to a full-band recording.
By the end of the course, you will be able to:
- Develop a general strategy for a recording session based upon a desired production style
- Select a microphone that effectively matches the characteristics of an instrument
- Position a microphone in a way that accommodates an instrument's complex sound radiation patterns
- Devise multiple mic configurations in order to attain more accurate or compelling recordings
- Work with close as well as distant mic configurations
- Utilize stereo mics to convey the spatial qualities of instruments and ensembles
- Execute a moderately complex recording session with multiple simultaneous performers
Lesson 1: Gearing Up for Recording
- Acoustics and Recording
- Electricity and Electronics
- The Recording Chain
- Configuring Your Recording Rig
- Microphone Signal Routing
Lesson 2: From Microphone to Multitrack: Details of the Recording Chain
- Microphones: A First Look
- Setup Procedures
- Microphone Signal Transmission
- Microphone Preamps
- Case Study: Neve Mic Preamps
- Gain Staging, Recording Levels, and Monitor Mixes
Lesson 3: Microphone Specifications and Types
- Inside Microphones
- Microphone Specifications
- Condenser Microphones
- Moving Coil Microphones
- Ribbon Microphones
Lesson 4: Choosing the Right Microphone
- The Unique Challenges of Learning Recording Skills
- From Goals to Sessions: Planning a Recording Project
- Matching Microphones to Instruments
Lesson 5: One on One: Basic Microphone Placement
- Evaluating Mic Choice and Placement
- Choose Your Distance
- Directional Characteristics of Musical Instruments
- Single Close-Miking Techniques
Lesson 6: When Two Is Better Than One
- Multiple Mics Versus Minimalism: Which Is Better?
- Common Scenarios For Multiple Close Microphones
- Dealing with Phase Interference
- Working with Multiple Microphones
- Examples of Multiple Close Miking Techniques
Lesson 7: Taking a Step Back: Mid-Zone and Distant Microphone Placement
- Not So Close: Mid-Zone Miking Techniques
- Using Distant Microphone Placement
- Exercise: Find the Critical Distance in a Room
- Combining Close and Distant Miking Techniques
- The Use of Acoustic Chambers for Ambience
Lesson 8: Stereo Miking Techniques
- Applications of Stereo Miking
- Coincident Stereo Pairs
- Quasi-Coincident Stereo Pairs
- Spaced Pairs and Microphone Arrays
Lesson 9: What Impacts the Sound of Recordings (Other Than Microphones)?
- The Role of Performance Technique
- The Wide World of Instruments
- The Impact of Room Acoustics and the Recording Environment
- Recording without a Microphone: Direct injection (DI)
Lesson 10: Recording the Drum Kit
- Starting at the Source: Selecting and Tweaking a Drum Kit
- The Impact of the Recording Environment on the Drum Sound
- Microphone Options for Recording Drums
- Classic Drum Miking Setups
Lesson 11: Preparing for a Recording Session
- Selecting a Project
- Establishing Goals and Production Methods
- Selecting an Appropriate Recording Environment
- Planning the Session
Lesson 12: The Recording Session
- Setting Up the Recording Space, Instruments, and Microphones
- Communications and Monitoring
- Tweaking the Setup
- Recording Tracks
Prerequisites and Course-Specific Requirements
Completion of Critical Listening 1 or equivalent knowledge and experience is required. Basic skills operating a multitrack recording system of your choice (connecting microphone inputs, adjusting recording levels, assigning inputs to recording tracks, creating monitor mixes) and bouncing mixes to WAV files or recording/importing external mixes into your computer will also be required. To meet the digital audio workstation (DAW) proficiency requirements, you may benefit from taking any of the following courses: Pro Tools 101, Pro Tools 110, Producing Music with Logic, Producing Music with Reason, Producing Music with Cubase, Ableton Live Fundamentals.
- None required
- Basic audio software such as Audacity or GarageBand: If not using a computer-based DAW, you will need digital audio software capable of recording or importing WAV files.
- Multitrack Recording System. You must have access to a multitrack recording system, which supports at least two microphone inputs. Any of the following are acceptable:
- Computer-based DAW (Pro Tools, Ableton Live, Logic Pro X, Reason 6, Digital Performer, SONAR, Cubase, etc.)
- Standalone digital or analog workstation (Roland, Yamaha, Fostex, Akai, etc.)
- Component recording system (console, multitrack tape recorder, etc.)
- The minimum requirement for the course is:
- One unidirectional condenser microphone
- One unidirectional dynamic (moving coil or ribbon) microphone
- Access to other microphone types can be helpful, including an omnidirectional microphone of any type, a bidirectional microphone of any type, and a second microphone matching any of your others for drum overheads and stereo miking techniques.
Note: The ideal hardware configuration for students who would like to experience recording a small live band is a system with 4 – 8 microphones and input channels.
- The minimum requirement for the course is:
- Musical Instruments
Coursework includes frequent hands-on recording assignments. We recommend the following:
- Vocalist (male or female; both if possible)
- An acoustic instrument, such as a saxophone or other woodwind, acoustic guitar, piano, or violin
- A drum kit is recommended for one assignment; an alternate option will be provided if a kit is not available
- A small band or ensemble (three or four pieces) is recommended for the final project; an alternate option will be provided if a band is not available
Note: it's better to record a band or some of your friends rather than engineering and playing simultaneously
- Other Equipment
- Stereo loudspeakers
- At least one pair of headphones suitable for monitoring during a recording session
After enrolling, please check the Getting Started section of your course for potential deals on required materials. Our Student Deals page also features several discounts you can take advantage of as a current student. Please contact email@example.com for any questions.
General Course Requirements
Below are the minimum requirements to access the course environment and participate in live chats. Please make sure to also check the Prerequisites and Course-Specific Requirements section above, and ensure your computer meets or exceeds the minimum system requirements for all software needed for your course.
- Latest version of Google Chrome
- Zoom meeting software
- Speakers or headphones
- External or internal microphone
- Broadband Internet connection
Author & Instructor
Andy Edelstein is an active educator, record producer, engineer, and multimedia developer. He is currently Associate Professor of Music Production and Engineering at Berklee, and has also served as Assistant Chair of the Music Production and Engineering Department during his twenty-five-year tenure at the College. Andy has produced, recorded, and/or mixed numerous records from jazz and rock to bluegrass, Celtic, and blues, including the genre-bending Wayfaring Strangers critically acclaimed Rounder releases, the SpinART debut by independent rockers Apollo Sunshine, and the latest Dry Branch Fire Squad live album, all using his Pro Tools HD system. Andy is Principal of Rapid Eye Media, specializing in multimedia production services. His design and production work is featured in a series of award-winning interactive exhibits at the American Jazz Museum in Kansas City, MO and the Longyear Museum in Brookline, MA. Consulting clientele has included the GRAMMY Foundation in Santa Monica, CA. Andy holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Alejandro Rodriguez is an associate professor in the Music Production and Engineering department at Berklee College of Music, with more than 20 years of experience as a recording, editing, mixing, mastering, post-production, and live sound engineer and producer. He has worked with artists such as Mariah Carey, Compay Segundo, Eliades Ochoa and AfroCuban All Stars (from Buena Vista Social Club), Silvio Rodriguez, Pablo Milanes, J.M. Vitier, Grupo Niche, Armando Mnazanero, Ricardo Arjona, Pancho Cespedes, and Tania Libertad.
Prior to Berklee, Alejandro was an acoustics professor at the National School of Arts (ENA) and a professor of sound studies at Instituto Superior de Artes (ISA)—both in Havana, Cuba. He has also taught audio and recording techniques at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores in Monterrey, México. Alejandro worked as a staff engineer for EGREM Studios in Havana, Cuba, and has since pursued a freelance career as an engineer and producer. He holds a bachelor's degree in music from ENA and a bachelor's degree in arts communication (specializing in sound for film, radio, and TV) from ISA. In addition, he studied telecommunication engineering at the Technical University in Havana and recording techniques at the Supraphon Recording Faclities in Prague, Czech Republic. Read Less
John Broaddus is an instructor in the Music Technology minor program at Berklee College of Music in Valencia, Spain where he teaches Recording Skills for the Musician, Critical Listening and Production Analysis. He holds an undergraduate degree in Music Theory from Drury College, a Recording Arts specialized degree from Full Sail and a Master’s in Music Production, Technology and Innovation from Berklee. As a teacher, technologist and music producer, John brings an infectious enthusiasm to his classes and is driven to see his students succeed as musicians, producers and engineers. He has produced a number of projects in his personal studio beginning in 1998 and has worked in digital media for Warner Bros. and Sony Pictures Entertainment in Los Angeles where clients included Disney, New Line Cinema, 20th Century Fox, BBC, Apple, Amazon, Google, Playstation Network and Microsoft to name a few.
Bora Uslusoy is a record producer and the founder of bUMA RecordZ, an independent digital music label, and project studio. Originally from Istanbul, Turkey, he is currently based in Boston, Massachusetts. He has produced, performed with, and worked as a recording and mixing Engineer for Turkish bands and artists such as Acil Servis, Artı90, Düşdünya, Aqua Talk, Klost and Sercan Sungur. Bora has also released two solo albums, Umutsuz Aşk and Muska (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) along with several singles for the Turkish and international markets.
Bora studied guitar at the Musicians’ Institute London, and completed Berklee College of Music’s “Studio Production Specialist” online certificate program. He attended Avid’s “Train The Trainer” program, leading to his becoming certified as an Avid Pro Tools Instructor. He is also certified as a Steinberg Trainer for Cubase. Bora has published five instructional books on guitar and bass in Turkish, created numerous online courses, and has written dozens of magazine articles, product reviews, and how-to guides.
He is currently an Assistant Professor at Berklee College of Music in the Music Production and Engineering Department, as well as teaching an online course at Quinnipiac University. Bora is a member of the Audio Engineering Society. Read Less
Leanne Ungar, professor in the Music Production and Engineering department at Berklee, is a producer/engineer with 30 years of experience in records, films, and television scores. With technical skills that encompass both analog equipment and digital applications, Ungar has produced or engineered seven albums for Leonard Cohen, and has worked with the avant-garde artist Laurie Anderson on Big Science, Mister Heartbreak, United States Parts I–IV, and a concert film, Home of the Brave. Ungar's list of collaborators also includes the Temptations, Fishbone, Holly Cole, Guster, Joe Henderson, Willie Nelson, Luther Vandross, Natalie Cole, Vonda Shepard, Carlene Carter, Paul Winter Consort, Tom Jones, and many others.
Since the outset of her career in the early 1970s, she has worked in both New York and Los Angeles, and has had a hand in creating many historic recordings, including those by James Brown, the Brecker Brothers, Manhattan Transfer, Cat Stevens, Loudon Wainwright III, and Janis Ian. Her film score credits include Kafka, Pump Up the Volume, and The Limey; television scores include work for Thirtysomething, The Wonder Years, Full House, and Family Matters. Read Less
When taken for credit, Microphone Techniques can be applied towards these associated programs: