Sampling and Audio Production


Authored by David Doms


Course Code: OLMSC-260

Next semester starts September 23

12 Weeks

Level 2

Level 2

3-Credit Tuition


Non-Credit Tuition


The development of sampling technology has spurred vast changes in the way music is created, produced, and performed. This course begins by taking you through the basics of the sampler's parts and functions, and looks at some of the different ways this versatile tool can be used. 

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Particular focus will be given to Reason's NN-XT sampler to examine more in-depth principles associated with sampling, including programming single and multi-sample programs, digital signal processing, and extending the sampler program using synthesis—techniques that are used extensively in dance music, hip-hop, and many other musical genres. In addition to the NN-XT, you will work with the other sample players in Reason, including the NN-19, Redrum, and Dr. Rex. You'll also learn to create unique instruments and sounds, including some made from your own recorded audio, and use them effectively—a benefit for all producers and engineers, as well as performing musicians. By the end of the course, you will be able to create fully functional sampler programs with your own source material, as well as prepare an audio project based entirely on the use of sampling and samplers. And, you'll get an educational discount on Reason.

To be successful in this course, you should have good computer skills, know how to configure your computer for sound, and have a MIDI keyboard.

See our Student Deals page after enrolling for exclusive discount offers on a Reason+ Subscription.

Course Objectives

At the end of the course, you will be able to:

  • Examine the principles and techniques associated with sampling and samplers, including recording, editing, and programming
  • Create fully functional sampler programs with their own source material
  • Create an audio project based on the use of sampling and samplers
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Overview Syllabus Requirements Instructors
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Lesson 1: What is a Sampler?

  • The Model of a Basic Sampling System
  • Hardware Samplers
  • Soft-Samplers
  • What Makes for a Good Sampler?
  • Assignment: Research Hardware and Soft-Samplers
  • Samplers and Sample Rates
  • Exercise: Listen and Analyze
  • Bit Depth
  • Loading and Storing Samples
  • Workshop: RAM Calculation
  • Exercise: Load and Play the Reason Samplers
  • Quiz

Lesson 2: Sampler Operation Basics

  • Elements of a Sample Program/Loading and Saving Files
  • Sample Libraries
  • Exercise: Samples Research
  • Saving Samples and Programs to Disk
  • Program Elements
  • Exercise: Program Elements
  • File Management
  • Quiz
  • Assignment: Editing and Saving an NN-XT Patch

Lesson 3: Samplers and Editing

  • Audio Editors
  • Destructive and Non-Destructive Editing
  • Exercise: Use the Zoom in Function to Make an Edit
  • Setting Play Back Points
  • Exercise: Edit Play Back Points
  • Looping
  • Assignment: Loop Samples
  • Quiz
  • Assignment: Building the Class Library Part 1

Lesson 4: Programming Single- And Multi- Sample Programs

  • Creating Your Own Sampler Instruments for Use in Audio Production
  • Creating a Single-Sample Program
  • Exercise: Make a Program
  • Workshop: NN-19 Parameter Quiz
  • Multi -Sample Programs
  • Exercise: Creating Layered Programs
  • Velocity
  • Exercise: Program a Multi-Sample Program
  • Assignment: Putting it Together

Lesson 5: Extending the Program

  • Tuning Offsets
  • Assignment: Make a Percussion Instrument Using Offset Tunings
  • Exercise: Create a Chorus Effects Using Offset Tunings
  • BPM Adjustments Using Classic Pitch Shifting
  • Asynchronous Loops and Multi Layer Sounds
  • Groups
  • Exercise: Adjusting Group Settings
  • Triggering Modes
  • Exercise: Reverse and Alternating Playback Options
  • Discussion: Analyzing an NN-XT Patch

Lesson 6: Extending the Sampler Program through Synthesis

  • Subtractive Synthesis
  • Properties of Sound
  • Signal Flow
  • Oscillators/ Source Sample
  • Exercise: Listen and Analyze
  • Filters
  • Amplifiers
  • Envelope Generators
  • LFOs
  • Exercise: Use the Filter
  • Exercise: Using LFOs
  • Assigning External Modulation Sources to The NN-XT
  • Exercise: Modulating the Amount of LFO 1
  • Exercise: Velocity as a Modulation Source
  • Assignment: Create Your Own Patches

Lesson 7: Planning Your Project

  • Project Parameters
  • Planning Your Instruments
  • Describe Your Sample Project
  • Establishing a Tempo
  • Exercise: Calculating the Tempo for a Loop
  • Rex Files
  • Assignment: Loading and Playing Rex Files: Dr. Rex Loop Player
  • The Redrum
  • Assignment: Create a Redrum Kit for Your Project
  • Loading and Playing Recycle Files in the NN-XT
  • Exercise: Recycle and the NN-XT
  • Assignment: Building Your Instruments: Part 2

Lesson 8: Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

  • File Based Processing
  • Normalize
  • Exercise: Practice Normalizing
  • Exercise: Noise Removal
  • Time Stretch/Compression
  • Exercise: Time and Expansion
  • Pitch Shifting with Time Correction
  • Exercise: Pitch Shifting with Time Correction
  • Fade In/Fade Out and Trim
  • Exercise: Time Warping
  • Assignment: Expanding Your Library

Lesson 9: Recording and Editing Your Own Samples

  • Recording Sounds into Audacity
  • Choosing Sound Sources to Record
  • Exercise: Recording External Sound Sources with Audacity
  • Exercise: Mixing in Audacity
  • Using the Real Time Audio Effects Processors in Reason
  • Exercise: Serial Processing
  • Assignment: Transform Your Own Samples
  • Assignment: Sample Round Robin

Lesson 10: Exploring Extended Features of the NN-XT

  • Using NN-XT Crossfading Feature
  • Exercise: Setting Up Crossfades on the NN-XT
  • Using NN-XT ALT Feature
  • Assignment: Applying ALT Parameter to Zones in an NN-XT Program
  • Assignment: Crossfading between Samples Using an External Controller

Lesson 11: Real-Time Control and Mix Down

  • Work Flow Part 1
  • Discussion: Work Flow Report
  • Using the Separate Outputs of NN-XT
  • Automation
  • Work Flow Part 2
  • Exercise: Mapping External Hardware Controllers
  • Editing Performance Controller Automation Data in Reason
  • Editing Track Parameter Automation Data in Reason
  • Assignment: Applying Mix Automation to Your Final Project

Lesson 12: Project Review and Wrap Up

  • Assignment: Writing Your Report
  • Assignment: Posting Your Project Files
  • Discussion: Final Project
  • What Did You Learn About the Sampling Process?
  • Discussion: Sampling Process


Prerequisites and Course-Specific Requirements 

Prerequisite Courses, Knowledge, and/or Skills
Completion of Music Production 101, or equivalent knowledge and/or experience. Sound Design for the Electronic Musician is recommended.


  • No textbooks required


  • Reason+ / Reason 12
  • Optional: While Reason is required and may be used as a standalone DAW for this course, you may also choose to use Reason Rack as a plug-in within one of the following DAWs for the final project:
    • Logic Pro
    • Ableton Live
    • Pro Tools
    • Cubase
  • Audacity (free)


  • MIDI keyboard controller
  • One of the following studio monitoring options (both recommended):
    • Studio monitors (pair), such as JBL 305Ps or better, as well as an audio interface and necessary cables
    • Over-ear studio headphones, such as Sennheiser HD 600, Sony MDR-7506, Philips SHP9500, Audio-Technica ATH-M50x, etc.

Student Deals
After enrolling, be sure to check out our Student Deals page for various offers on software, hardware, and more. Please contact with any questions.

General Course Requirements

Below are the minimum requirements to access the course environment and participate in Live Classes. Please make sure to also check the Prerequisites and Course-Specific Requirements section above, and ensure your computer meets or exceeds the minimum system requirements for all software needed for your course. 

Mac Users

PC Users

All Users

  • Latest version of Google Chrome
  • Zoom meeting software
  • Webcam
  • Speakers or headphones
  • External or internal microphone
  • Broadband Internet connection


David Doms

Author & Instructor

David Doms, Associate Professor in the Music Synthesis Department at Berklee College of Music, has a long history of teaching MIDI and music synthesis. At Berklee, he teaches "Advanced Digital Sampling," "Advanced MIDI Systems," and "MIDI systems," and before coming to Berklee, he spent ten years at the New England Institute of Art teaching music synthesis and MIDI.

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He has composed and produced TV and radio commercials for regional and national broadcast, corporate video, and film, including music for NBC, Fox TV, Xerox, and Gillette. He is a published songwriter with Warner-Chappell and DSM. As a producer, musician, and songwriter, his work has appeared on numerous releases, including Down Avenue (RCA), Robin Lane, Charles Pettigrew (formerly of Charles and Eddie), Laurie Geltman, and Ivan DePrume. His current project, Dreamtime9, is a combination of fuel-injected jazz/blues-based songs, integrated with ambient laptop and spoken word. David holds a Bachelor of Music from Boston University. He performs regularly in the Boston area and is working on a new release with Dreamtime9. Read Less

Anthony Schultz


Tony Schultz has been an audio engineer, music producer and composer for more than 28 years as owner & operator of Big T Productions in Boston. He is an assistant professor at The New England Institute of Art, where he has taught since 1997, specializing in MIDI and Audio Technology. He has been teaching for Berklee Online since 2016.

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Tony has a bachelor’s of music degree in Music Production & Engineering from the Berklee College of Music and a master’s in Music Technology from the University of Newcastle in Callaghan, Australia. He has served three consecutive two-year terms as the chair of the Boston Section of the Audio Engineering Society and is currently serving his second two-year term as the AES VP of the Eastern Region of the US/Canada. He is also the current chair of Regions & Sections, overseeing all Pro and Student AES Sections Worldwide.

Past clients include RCA Records, Mercury Records, Virgin Records, WFNX, Filene's, Home Inc., EF Education, Schneider & Associates, Softskull Press Inc., Brand X Filmworks, Dudnyk Healthcare, Teatro de Marionettas de Venezuela, and the NAHB Production Group.

Tony has presented at a number of colleges including Berklee College of Music, Harvard University and the Royal College of Music in London.

He is a member of the Society of Professional Recording Services (SPARS), National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (NARAS), and the American Society of Composers, Authors & Publishers (ASCAP). Read Less


Contact our Academic Advisors by phone at 1-866-BERKLEE (U.S.), 1-617-747-2146 (INT'L), or by email at

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